Sojourner Truth (1797-1883), born into slavery as Isabella, was an American abolitionist and an advocate of women’s rights. She joined the abolitionist movement and became a travelling preacher. She took her new name-Sojourner Truth-in 1843 and began preaching along the eastern seaboard. Her strategy consisted of walking through Long Island and Connecticut, speaking to people about her life and her relationship with God. She was a powerful speaker and singer.
When she rose to speak, wrote one observer, her commanding figure and dignified manner hushed every trifler to silence. Audiences were melted into tears by her touching stories. She traveled and spoke widely. Encountering the women’s rights movement in 1850, Truth added its causes to hers. She is particularly remembered for the famous Ain’t I a Woman? speech she gave at the woman’s rights convention in 1851. Although Truth never learned to read or write, she dictated her memoirs to Olive Gilbert and they were published in 1850s as The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave.
This book, and her presence as a speaker, made her a sought-after figure on the anti-slavery woman’s rights lecture circuit. Harriet Tubman was closely associated with Abolitionist John Brown and was well acquainted with other abolitionists, including Frederick Douglas, Jermain Loguen, and Gerrit Smith. After freeing herself from slavery, Tubman worked at various activities to save to finance her activities as a Conductor of the Underground Railroad. She is believed to have conducted approximately 300 persons to freedom in the North. The tales of her exploits reveal her highly spiritual nature, as well as a grim determination to protect her charges and those who aided them.
Her strategy was to show confidence to the people she was responsible for. Like Truth, she used words to influence others. She always expressed confidence that God would aid her efforts, and threatened to shoot any of her charges who thought to turn back. For example, Tubman had a very short rule, which implied death to anyone who talked of giving out and going back. She would give all to understand that times were very critical and therefore no foolishness would be indulged in on the road.
Her subjects were greatly invigorated by Harriet’s blunt and positive manner and threat of extreme measures. When William Still published The Underground Railroad in 1871, he included a letter from Thomas Garret, the Stationmaster of Wilmington Delaware. In this letter, Garret describes Tubman as Moses. He success was wonderful. Time and time again she made successful visits to Maryland on the Underground Railroad, and would be absent for weeks at a time, running daily risks while making preparations for herself and her passengers. Great fears were entertained for her safety, but she seemed wholly devoid of personal fearshe would not suffer one of her party to whimper once, about giving out and going back, however wearied they might be by the hard travel day and night.
John Brown was an American abolitionist, born in Connecticut and raised in Ohio. Unlike Truth and Hubman’s peaceful strategies, he felt passionately and violently that he must fight to end slavery. The success of the pro-slavery forces, especially their lack of Lawrence, aroused Brown, and in order to cause a restraining fear he, with four of his sons and two other men, led the murder of five pro-slavery men on the banks of the Pottawatomie River. He stated that he was an instrument in the hand of God.
His exploits as a leader of an antislavery bank received wide publicity, especially in abolitionist journals, and as Old Brown of Osawatomie he became nationally known. Brown did not end there. In October 1856, Brown