” (Knudsen,106) p In the nineteenth century, after the exposure of the “white slave” trade, in which young girls were sold or kidnapped and forced into prostitution, the concept of “age of consent” developed in England, defining the age at which a girl could consent to sexual intercourse initially at ten, then at twelve, and finally, in 1885, at sixteen. “(Knudson,106) Over the past ten years , the availability of literature on sexual assault has increased significantly. However, clinical data are increasingly suggesting that boys may be at equal risk for sexual victimization, since they are the preffered targets of habitual pedophiles and victims of child sex rings. Law inforcement investigations have verified the pedophiles almost always collect child pornography or child erotica. Pedophiles do not merely view pornography: They save it. It represents their most cherished sexual fantasies.
They typically collect books, magazines, articles, newspapers, negatives, movies, slides, photographs, albums, drawings, audiotapes, personal letters, video tapes and equipment, diaries, clothing, sexual aids, souvenirs, toys, games, lists, paintings, ledgers, and photographic equipment. Better educated and more affluent pedophiles tend to have largewr collections. Pedophiles whose living or working arrangements give them a higher degree of privacy tend to have larger collections. Because collections are accumulated over a period of time, older pedophiles tend to have larger collections. Pedophiles with the economic means are converting more and more to videotape systems.
They are even converting their books, magazines, photographs, and movies to videotape. For less than $1,500, a pedophile can have his own video camera and two video recorders, which give him the capability to produce and duplicate child pornography and erotica with little fear of discovery. (Lanning,236-7) There are four kinds of collectors: (a) closet, (b) isolated, (c) cottage, and (d) commercial. The closet collector keeps his collection a secret and is not actively involved in molesting children. Materials are usually purchased discreetly through commercial channels. The isolated collector is actively molesting children as well as collecting child pornography or erotica.
Fear of discovery overrides his need for active validation and causes him to keep his activity a secret between only himself and his victims. His collection may include pictures of his victims taken by him as well as material from other sources. The cottage collector shares his collection and sexual activity with other individuals. This is usually done primarily to validate his behavior, and money or profit is not a significant factor. Photographs, videotapes, and war stories are swapped and traded with other child molesters (and sometimes, unknowingly, with undercover investigators).
The commercial collector recognizes the monetary value of his collection and sells his duplicates to other collectors. Although profit is an important motive, these individuals are usually active sexual molesters themselves. (Lanning,237) Child pornography and child erotica are used for the sexual arousal and gratification of pedophiles. Some pedophiles only collect and fantasize about the material without acting out these fantasies, but in some cases the arousal fueled by the pornography is only an introduction to actual sexual activity with children. A second use of child pornography and erotica is to lower children’s control.
A child who is reluctant to engage in sexual activity with an adult or to pose for sexually explicit photos can sometimes be convinced by viewing other children having fun participating in the activity. A third major use of child pornography collections is black mail. Pedophiles use many techniques to black mail ; one of them is through photographs taken of the child. If the child threatens to tell his or her parents or the ploice, the existence of sexually explicit photographs can be an effective silencer.
A fourth use of child pornography and erotica is as a medium .