Greek love of physical beauty, of nature, of freedom and the ideals of the Greek city-states [which) appeared side by side with the historical awareness, political power and firm determination of the Romans (Lets 8). ” From the ancient texts Patriarch, re-discovered the significance of liberal studies once considered for a free man in Greek or Roman culture to follow, called Studio Humanities. A free man studying Studio Humanities, would study grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy and would be called a Humanist.
When Humanism began to spread, the result was the Renaissance, which restored life and values which had been buried for centuries. The renewed interest oftenest ancient ideas triggered the coming advancements in art, science and society, To contrast and differentiate the Italian Renaissance with its Northern counter-part is simplistic, o compare between the two becomes slightly more difficult. Throughout history the primary historical focus of the Renaissance was based primarily on Italy, but north of the Alps, the arts had reached an apex a century earlier in the Gothic, the antithesis of the classical.
And even after the period of its Gothic prestige, Northern Renaissance art flourished and in many ways it was just as splendorous and revolutionary as the Renaissance in Italy, but just had different aspects. The Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. Countries in central and Western Europe began emerging as nation-states. The Northern Renaissance baas also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of conflicts between the different Protestant churches and the Holy Roman Catholic Church.
In the fifteenth century, Italy was not a unified country or made up of nation- states like the North, but a series of principalities, Duchies, and Republics ruled by affluent merchant families that were major patrons of art. Thus, allowing countless centers of free trade and commerce to emerge, resulting in the rapid spread and exchange of new ideas. In the North there was a fewer number of economic trade centers like in Italy, thus making the centers of free commerce in the Low Countries, France, and the Holy Roman Empire to be more spread out resulting in less communication and comparison Of new ideas.
The North also did not have a wealthy merchant class to constantly fund various art projects. This was not the case in the north. In fact, the only notable similar class, like the merchants of Italy, in the North lay in the Duchy of Burgundy with the Dukes of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy encompassed a territory from present-day eastern France northward to the sea, and included parts of modern Belgium and sections f the current Netherlands. It was the only state standing amid France and the vast Holy Roman Empire at the time.
The dukes of Burgundy would best fit the description as a worthy counter part to the wealthy merchants of Italy. But their wealth and patronage was their only claim to a similarity, because the type of patronage and works they funded contrasts heavily with the merchants in Italy. The Dukes’ patronage funded illuminated manuscripts, tapestries and furnishings to fill their many castles they owned. Unlike their wealthy Italian counter parts, the merchant patrons of Italy were keener on fresco paintings, sculpture and architecture.
A difference that is often overlooked, but impacts and influences the Italian and Northern Renaissance enormously, are the individual climates of the each region. It is not often taken into consideration but how hot or how cold a climate is affects the style, texture, preservation, and medium of choice of an artist. Italy is located by the Mediterranean Sea, and in fact is geographically almost entirely engulfed by the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean, with the exceptions Of the colder regions of the Alps which lie in severe north Italy, produces a warm and damp climate for the most Of the year.
This warm climate allows the Italian Renaissance artists to use a lighter paint, and in most cases lighter colors, that results in the production Of the famous Frescos that would be seen frequently through out the Italian peninsula. This was extremely different in the North, artistic style wise and obviously climate wise. The Low Countries, France, the Duchy of Burgundy, and the Holy Roman Empire are not known to be warm. In fact, the terrain is comprised of mountainous, forested, and rugged lands, with the overall climate being cold and wet with snow.
Because of such a colder climate the idea of frescos was unheard of, it would have been nearly impossible o paint them in such a cold climate. The northern artists perfected the art of oil based paintings on canvases. Their oil paint would be applied thicker giving a rough texture and it was heavier than the lighter paint and application of the frescos in Italy, but not only was the paint heavier, but the color was heavier too. The climates of the respective regions can be attributable to very different stylistic techniques used by the artists of both Renaissances.
The Renaissance painting was once described by Giorgio Vassar in 1558 as painting is but the imitation of things as they are,” quoted from his book The Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects. This is a very true comparison for both Renaissances, in the North and on the Italian Peninsula. But the stylistic techniques that define the comparison of the renaissances differ Aforementioned was the difference between mediums, resulting in different textures; a consequence of climatically different regions.
But the styles of each respective renaissance still differ greatly. One such noted difference is the content and subject Of each respective region. As previously stated by Vassar “painting is but the imitation of things are they re,” and the ‘things’ Of the north at the time was religious turmoil and conflict. In 151 7, Martin Luther nailed his ninety-five thesis to a German church door, which sparked the movement known as the Protestant Reformation. Many Northern Renaissance art works reflect not just the Protestant Reformation. UT religion on the whole. Although many Italian artists did manufacture art works involving religion but it was normally as a result of the artist being commissioned by the Catholic Church, unlike their northern counter parts where they freely depicted religion and religious struggles with or without a commission. Stylistically, the Renaissance played with the effect and emphasis of light in their paintings, The Northern Renaissance, particularly in the Low Countries, light was emphasized heavily, like the mediums, textures and color.
The use tot light was used very dramatically and almost always drew the audiences’ eye to the overall subject of the work. The Northern artists would also “clutter their paintings with detail and few regards to perspective. It would be rare to have a painting classified as a Northern Renaissance piece and it not have “clutter. ” In Italy at the time, painting had a linear perspective. Linear perspective is a thematic formula for generating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface, in this case a fresco or canvas The system originated in Romancer, Italy in the late sass.
The artist and architect Brucellosis demonstrated its principles and excelled at IL Not only was painting revolutionized during the Renaissance but the art of sculpting took a dramatic change in both regions. In Italy, sculpture began to take shape of its Greek and Roman predecessor, in its depiction and ability to capture natural human elements. Marble sculpture was more predominant in Italy because of the vast marble quarries, which in the North numbered in the ewe if not none. Michelangelo free standing sculpture titled David would be one of the best examples of Italian Renaissance marble sculpture.
In the North, sculpture did not take free standing form but in relief on church doors and buildings themselves, a technique that reminiscences from the Northern Renaissances Gothic roots. In most cases, sculpture unlike the paintings, would be commissioned by a Northern Renaissance church. Made of stone, these church sculptures would depict scenes from the bible. Sculptors would learn their trade in a Guild. A guild can be the only true aspect of the Renaissance that the North and Italy hared as a whole, A guild a center of learning and knowledge in a particular field of art or trade.
The master or the head of the Guild and generally the best in that respective field, would apprentice out young men for the guild and teach them the ‘tricks of the trade. ” 80th regions of the Renaissance enacted the use of Guilds to help spread the knowledge. The Renaissance, in the North and Italy, was a monumental period of change, not just for the world of art and sculpture, but for religion, technology and the use of science. Under the Renaissance, human progress was making up pace.