These changes have made a risky environment for today’s youth. Children and teenagers spend more time with peer groups than ever before. Drugs and deadly weapons are used increasingly as ways to solve problems. Illicit and explicit sexuality and violence are the main subjects of choice in the media; and the impact of media influence has widened and become more vivid with the introduction of computers, video games, portable stereos and MTV.
Changes in Family Structure and Functioning – The prevalence of divorce and the increasing number of women in the workplace have reduced the number of adults who provide interaction, structure and supervision in a child’s life. Along with this, institutions have not kept pace in providing alternative programs for unsupervised kids. Add to this new parenting expectations that come with single parent and step-parent families and you now have a confusing, often inconsistent and/or unreliable home base for children. Confusion About Parent Roles and Parent Control – When children reach adolescence, conflict between parents and teens normally increases as teens need to distance themselves from parental identity to establish their own identity. Experts agree they are generally three parenting styles that reportedly escalate these conflicts. The authoritarian parent tends to emphasize rules and very harsh consequences.
There is little room for discussion or negotiation. The indulgent parent tends to spoil the child and expects little or no responsibility at home, choosing instead to clean up after the child both at home and in his social misbehavior. The indifferent parent is so preoccupied with his/her own life andactivities that little time and energy is given to either involvement orappropriate structure. The type of parenting that does work is simply called authoritative parenting.
This type of parent assumes a role of authority in the child’s life, but the rules and structure are sensible and flexible to accommodate the child’s growth toward adolescence and young adulthood. The parent’s intelligent explanations of the rules plus reasonable enforcement help to maintain a steady reduction of control as the child matures. Studies have been made to determine the causes of juvenile delinquency. Many of these studies have focused on family relationships.
In one study, comparing delinquent and non-delinquent youths showed that over ninety percent of the delinquents had unhappy home lives and felt discontented with their life circumstances. Only thirteen percent of the non-delinquent youths felt this way. This study also brought attention to the fact that to these youths’ delinquency appeared to be a sort of solution to them. It brought attention to youths neglected by their parents, or approval of delinquent friends, or it solved problems of an unhappy home life in other ways.A study by the National Institute of Justice also determined that youths from neglectful homes, single parent homes and homes in which substance abuse was a problem had a greater likelihood of being charged as a juvenile .